Already since 1960s, the CTA urged the Indian authorities to refuse any exile Tibetan application for Indian citizenship. As a result, most Tibetans in south Asia remain stateless. (David: it can be seen in Samdhong Rinpoche’s interview with TPR. However the situation will change dramatically due to Namgyal Dolkar’s case)
The exile identity is strengthen by the green book and voluntary freedom tax.
Tibetan diaspora outside the Asian countries, are more reluctant to pay the freedom tax than TIE in Asian countries. Because the renegades are at best a materially independent situation, they neither suffer from material disadvantages nor from their status of not being officially part of the exile Tibetan community.
Also, who are critics of the CTA don’t pay the tax.
CTA uses the material incentive to promote the tax. For example, only people with annual payment can enlist their children in TGIE’s scholarship program.
The situation is worsen by Indian restrictions for exile Tibetans and their children who arrived in India after 1962 to study at Indian universities. So, exile Tibetan youth access to higher education either by TGIE’s scholarship, or by application of Indian citizenship.
Since 1990s, the CTA has been struggling with a lock of well-trained teacher because brain drain. During 1990s, the CTA started to introduce Tibetan language as teaching medium in the primary level, therefore enlarged the problem since Indian/Nepali teacher unfit for the role.
The education opportunities in exile also attract many Tibetans in PRC to send their children to Indian. However, since the exile Tibetan teachers are unable to speak Mandarin or certain local Tibetan dialects, their education is difficult and sometimes even impossible.
Many of the young Tibetans return home after the education to find a job in PRC. Their knowledge in languages (Chinese, Tibetan, English and Hindi) and at least basic reading and writing skill help their job seeking. However, the fact of being educated in the exile system may cause suspicion and disapproval in the PRC.
The CTA saw the steady exchange between PRC and exile community a positive thing, which provide change to promote exile politics in PRC.
After 2002’s commemoration of the Tibetan Uprising on 10 March, the author interviewed several young Tibetans. There is a general frustration among the young people about the non-violent struggle of the CTA and an emotional potential for mroe radical and sensational ways to promote the Tibetan cause.
Tibetan movement is successfully promoted in Hollywood and other western media. However, that also create a moment that the CTA lost control of the development and Tibetans became a victim of Hollywood’s consuming image.
Tsering Shakya stressed, “after decades of being reduced to the status of mere recipients of charity and sympathy, the process of reduction of Tibetans to an endangered species of the human family is nearly complete. At one level, this has attracted sympathy, yet on another level, the Tibetan issue is treated as an inevitable question of ‘backward people resisting the march of modernity’.
And Jamyang Norbu said, “the national struggle for an independent Tibet has been replaced by a squishy agenda of environmental, pacifist, spiritual, and ‘universal’ concerns that has little or nothing to do with Tibet’s real problems.”