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存档澎湃新闻探访西康系列游记

探访西康,作者:马特

探访西康①|成都安仁镇:首任省主席与大地主的故乡

探访西康②|马尔康:过往边区冲突与易守难攻的要塞

探访西康③|大小金川:曾有红军扶持的少数民族地方政权

探访西康④|康定:汉藏边地的贸易城市

探访西康⑤|雅安:1950年迁来的西康省会

探访西康⑥|西昌:曾是明争暗斗的边地政治中心

探访西康⑦|凉山地区:扶贫典型悬崖村与中西合璧老教堂

前言:

四川西部的历史让我颇为兴奋。

1979年,费孝通提出了藏彝走廊的概念,主要指四川西部怒江、澜沧江和金沙江地区存在一条自然形成的横断山脉通道,连接起以藏族和彝族为主要族群的若干个民族,并在东部的汉文化与西部的藏文化之间形成交流和缓冲的过渡地带。

这种过渡地带的意识贯穿着川边地区的历史。1939年,西康省在西藏东部与四川西部之间建立,这种意识以行政建制的方式得以确定。西康省只存在了短短16年,但建省本身的博弈却前后持续半个多世纪。

历史上,西康省实际上的政府控制区和地图上的范围并不一致。地图上的西康省包括金沙江以东33县2设治局和金沙江以西13县,但西康政府实际能控制的只有金沙江东部地区,金沙江以西由西藏地方政府实际控制。双方在一系列冲突之后,默认了金沙江为康藏边界。

我此次不限于探访西康省时期的遗迹,而是该地区的近现代历史文化。探访路线从成都开始,由成都到阿坝和甘孜两个藏族地区(曾经的康属),再从甘孜向东到雅安(曾经的雅属),最后从雅安向南到凉山彝族地区(曾经的宁属),涵盖了西康省实际控制下的主要地区。

另外,这次探访,我跟随了八十年前孙明经的路线。他是一位摄影师和纪录片导演。1934年,南京金陵大学理学院院长、物理学家魏学仁和化学家潘澄候发起了一项电影教育计划。他们在美国留学期间了解到电影对教育的作用,打算应用到中国的教育实践中。这项计划的落实者就是刚刚毕业留校、23岁的孙明经。

1939年,孙明经加入中英庚款川康科学考察团,被允许使用庚款经费拍摄电影。他于1939年7月进入西康,进行地理人文考察,拍摄了8部影片。1944年,孙明经第二次进入西康,放映电影并进行爱国宣传展览。

我有一本孙明经1939年西康之行的老照片集,2003年出版。我沿途寻找老照片上的建筑遗迹,看看今天它们变成了什么样子。

……

尾声

在西康的二十天探访,我从北向南,穿行了原西康的康属、雅属、宁属地区。坦率地说,西康地区的近代历史遗留并不多。也许川边地区在近现代一直处于纷争当中,在缓冲地带上不太容易进行大规模建设,而西康省存续时间又太短。

从这个角度看,西康地区的历史从一开始就充满制衡和妥协。元朝蒙古统治者在西南边区设立土司进行管理,这种放权是蒙古人对待帝国边区的方式,只需按时征税就可以获得一定自治权。对于外来的蒙古人来说,这有利于管理自己完全不了解的地区。

明朝延续了这一制度。但到了清朝后期,这种制度的弊端开始显现。土司作为少数民族地区的唯一统治者,只要不叛乱,中央政府基本上默认土司可以为所欲为。英国人在这一时期的介入带有强烈的政治野心,不但试图控制西藏地区,更想通过西藏进入四川,而土司们对此态度暧昧。虽然他们并不愿接纳英国人,但也不那么顺从地成为帝国的边地屏障,这导致了帝国的中央政府开始考虑撤销土司。

这种尝试在中华民国建立前就开始进行。到了民国时期,虽然第一次世界大战让中国获得了喘息机会,英国人不再那么积极地介入西藏问题。但清朝灭亡打破了原有的天下共主体制,藏区与中央政府只有名义上的隶属关系。在此时期,西康地区主政者最重要的任务,是如何制衡拉萨政府对川边的控制,通过宗教上的怀柔和军事上的试探维系脆弱的平衡,也包括利用云南的新军和青海的穆斯林军阀对藏区进行牵制。

这期间,红军长征在西康的藏区及彝区传播了革命思想。很难说,当地土司们是真的认同革命,还是作为在汉人政治派别之间押宝的手段,但这让少数民族地方统治者之间就派别问题产生了分歧。这意味着,后来的西康地区统治者,要拿出更多务实的诚意来拉拢民族地方领袖,包括经济建设和教育发展。

直到共和国建立后,解放军进入西藏,确认了国家最终的边界,并通过1950年代中期对藏区和彝区叛乱的镇压肃清,实现了西康地区对中央政府的彻底认同,也由此实现了西康省的历史目的。

我的这次探访,还存在很多遗漏,并没有涉足西康省西部地区。但由此可找到一些理解“边地”的思路,也希望让更多的人思考边区复杂的政治与文化变迁。

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Posted by 于 五月 2, 2018 in 行万里路

 

2013·夏·囊谦-德钦之六

我在德钦差不多呆了两周,看看我关心的那所学校,他们正处于另一个转折点;剩下的时间在美丽的梅里雪山面前消磨时光。

呆了十天,这是看到最清楚的太子十三峰;这样无云的梅里雪山群峰,秋冬比较容易看到,雨季的夏季不容易看到。

我最喜欢卡瓦格博和缅茨姆的山形。

茨中天主教堂。

盐井的盐池。

多说一点云南的见闻。

我在德钦碰到几位高中毕业生/大学生,其中没有一位是藏族中学毕业的;所以尽管他们都说藏语,有的人甚至连自己的藏语名字也写不出。两三年前,德钦开始在所有汉语班的小学教藏语,虽然每周课时较少,但是藏族学生最少应该学好字母能写名字了。

迪庆州在执行一项集中办学的政策,这个政策成为当地教育系统和政府的政绩工程,问题多多。他们甚至在校车等基础设施还不完善的情况下强行把从一年级开始的小学生集中到镇上。当地人埋怨见不到孩子,有观点认为这会割裂儿童和乡村的联系。

云南这边的情况比较宽松,当地朋友和我讲到地方上信仰和不信仰雄天护法的冲突,信仰雄天的藏民则更跟从班禅大师而不是达赖喇嘛。这边信仰雄天的比较多,这些人大多在政府的框架内进行宗教活动;政府对听从达赖喇嘛从而放弃信仰雄天的村庄比较敏感。

我这回有幸和一位祖父和父亲都是共产党员的年轻藏族司机(他不是共产党员,是一名个体户司机)聊天。他的解读是,达赖喇嘛对雄天的排斥是想试图知道国内还有多少人听他的,这样的结果是带来一个分裂的藏族。他还讲到云南藏族和西藏藏族之间的矛盾,那边的人认为他们被汉化了,不喜欢他们。

2012年夏天的时候,云南的藏族司机无法带着游客进入西藏。今年夏天,如同青海的情况一样,这边的藏族需要办理西藏自治区居住证进藏,但是基本上也不用特别审批。我的一个朋友刚刚开着车带着几个朋友一起去拉萨朝圣。但是,迪庆政府有个特别的方法对他们进行控制。在沿路大的城镇,尽管为旅游而开设的旅馆很多,这些旅馆却不接待藏族,他们只能去州政府指定的旅馆,这些地方有人登记身份证,大概也有人监视。据说政府害怕他们被西藏的藏族“带坏了”。

据上面的司机朋友告诉我,云南这边想申请护照的藏族可以申请到护照,也有人循这种“正常”途径去印度朝圣,但是回来后公安机关会跟他们谈话了解情况。

我在另一位司机那看到了他今年5月办理的“进藏证”:

这份证件的有效期仅到6月份,现在(8月)他能够仅凭居住证就能带我们进入西藏自治区,可能是已经不用了。

 
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Posted by 于 九月 14, 2013 in 行万里路, 每日杂谈

 

2013·夏·囊谦-德钦之五

昌都正在大兴土木。但是感觉上,昌都比玉树要发达得多,我猜地方政府有更多钱。

远处是强巴林寺。昌都到香格里拉的班车隔天一班,所以我就无法安排在昌都多呆一天了,只能等下一次。

听说昌都有大量成都人,在街头也能听到四川话。早晨,可以看到有人在澜沧江广场打太极拳,我猜那是这儿的汉族居民。如果机场不通,昌都实际上交通挺不方便的。走川藏线旅游的人大多走南线,那更成熟些。

我在汽车站附近发现了一辆装甲车,应该是特警的。一路上,无论是玉树、囊谦还是类乌齐、昌都和后面的德钦,我都没感觉紧张气氛,除了检查站令人不安。同车的一位汉族朋友告诉我,他上次从香格里拉上来到昌都。一路上经历了7次身份证检查。内地普通汉族人不明白藏地的紧张局势,抱怨西藏的警察太多。

藏语“都”是两条河流汇聚的地方,在昌都,昂曲汇入杂曲;而且这也是317和214会合的地方,是个交通要道。1950年解放军也是在这儿击溃了拉萨政府的藏军,一役而定。

这张照片没拍出两条河流汇聚的感觉。

出了昌都就是风景。

昌都外是著名的邦达大草原,昌都机场即在此,这也是离所在城市最远的机场之一,离昌都市区130公里。据说这个机场还是由军事部门管理,所以民航不太规则。

夏天是草原最好的季节,我在邦达草原上也看到一处赛马会场。

车转到318线,骑行的人开始多起来。

玉曲的水网图

这段线路的特点是高峡深谷,山谷之后露出一段彩虹。

山谷之中的人家。

往下看是雨季中的澜沧江。

富饶的草原

靠近路边的一片风马旗

远处的铁塔

这组司机开车巨猛,当天晚上12点到了云南的佛山乡,这样我第二天一早就到了我休假的目的地德钦。

清晨的梅里大峡谷。

这天云雾特别大。

飞来寺什么也看不到。

几年不见,德钦县修了不少房子。

最后终于到了目的地雾浓顶村。

 
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Posted by 于 八月 25, 2013 in 行万里路

 

2013·夏·囊谦-德钦之四

从囊谦到德钦的最佳路线是经过西藏自治区的昌都。因为方便的原因,我到甘青川滇四省藏区去得比较多,但是去西藏自治区仅一次。2008年3.14以后,外国人和港澳台籍人士进入TAR的困难大大增加;自有四川藏人在大昭寺自焚后,据报道政府在西藏自治区边界上拦截其他藏区的藏族人进入西藏自治区。在玉树的时候,朋友告诉我去西藏很难,需要四个公章。我估计这大大减少了玉树和昌都之间的本地人的往来。

但是到今年暑假的时候,这个政策已经放松,玉树藏人无需这种审批表既可进入昌都。汉族人(不清楚其他民族情况如何)和西藏自治区的本地居民只需身份证即可穿越青海、西藏边界。

我们一上车,司机(藏族人)就询问每个人的情况,确保能顺利“入关”。我们车上有一位是当地警察部门的家属,后来发现她忘了带身份证,我们不得不等了一会,等待她丈夫把身份证送来。车上另一位旅客来自西藏左贡,他持有一份这种外出人员审批表:

这张审批表上有我朋友提到的国保、治安、刑警和公安局的四个章。看来即使是西藏自治区内部,也曾经采取过这种限制人员流动的措施。所有藏人都知道这个措施只针对藏族,不难想象他们对这一明目张胆的民族歧视政策作何反应。

早晨囊谦出发的时候天气还阴着。

出了囊谦城天气就晴了,蓝天白云绿草,虽然正处在高原的雨季。

路边的牦牛

快到中午的时候,我们到了青海和类乌齐的边界,某乡的安全检查站。根据目前的政策,非TAR的藏族人,需要出示身份证(藏区的身份证不象内地那么普及),然后在这办理一个叫西藏自治区居住证的证件,有效期3个月。

上面这位因为身份证上的照片似乎是穿着僧袍拍的,可能怀疑是出家人,被好好盘问了半天。前面那位从左贡到玉树打工的旅客更麻烦,他没有携带身份证,只有这份外出审批表;更麻烦的是,他审批表上的身份证号码是错误的,地方公安查不到。我们为此在这个检查站呆了一个多小时,我都以为他走不了了,最后,他打电话到左贡的公安局,澄清了情况,我们才被批准进入TAR。就在这段时间,估计警察闲得无聊,要求检查我们车上藏族人(包括身份证为昌都本地)的所有行李。

这个检查站有个地方比较奇怪,所有藏人办的居住证,从这离开的时候要保存在这儿,如果3个月内从这再次进去的时候,得把原来的居住证找出来。我后来在盐井看到的情况不同,云南的藏人可以自行携带居住证。

进入类乌齐,风貌上没觉得和囊谦有多大区别。

但是,在西藏自治区,几乎所有人家的民居上都插了一杆国旗。感觉上,似乎类乌齐路边的寺庙比囊谦少,虽然佛塔、风马旗之类的民间信仰标记依然很多。这儿的塔是红色的,就像没竣工的那样。

我们的车离开主路,到了一片赛马会现场。原来,那位囊谦县公安局的家属,是专门来参加这个赛马会的。

这片帐篷区有很多来自青海的卡车、轿车和摩托车;如果政府没有放松青海和西藏之间的旅行限制,这是不可能的。当然,这可能正是地方政府不得不放松限制的原因。

我们走出这片场地的时候,路边有三位女士正在盛装打扮,可惜在车上抓拍得不清楚。

这儿的政府更积极地讲政治,这是路上的双语标语。

路边的民房看起来风格不一样了。

这是我在类乌齐一间川菜馆拍到的,和毕研韬老师一样,这是我第一次亲眼目睹;不过现在大概该推出新版了,五虎将。

在类乌齐等了大概一个多小时,因为我们车上只有三位去昌都的。这种情况在藏区挺常见的,最后我们被卖到另外一辆车。类乌齐到昌都之间并不远,但是中间要翻一座山,路况很差,不明白当地为什么没钱把这段路修好。

最后终于到昌都了。

 
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Posted by 于 八月 25, 2013 in 行万里路

 

2013·夏·囊谦-德钦之三

这天去囊谦县觉拉乡看一个小学。早晨出发的时候天气不好。

囊谦给人一种秘境的感觉,以前玉树都是囊谦王国的一部分,这儿是玉树的文化中心,拥有最多寺院。此外,囊谦的海拔比玉树低,只有3600多米,比较适合旅游。

这块石头适合攀岩。不过朋友告诉我,那儿有经幡,应该不能随便攀登。

我的这位藏族朋友是一位NGO负责人,有些非佛教思想,认为本地藏族人应该多把钱用到一些基本生活和教育、健康等上面,而不是修漂亮的寺院。他停下车来,让我在这个地方拍张照片,把寺庙和村庄放在一张照片里面。

他告诉我,十年前这个村庄就这样了,十年后仍然如此;他当时在这援建了一座小学,现在废弃了。而对面的寺庙越来越漂亮了。

这是觉拉寺,属叶巴噶举派,乡以寺为名。朋友告诉我有很多内地、香港和台湾的信众捐款修建这所寺庙。

莲花生大士(Padmasambhava)的壁画,这一带非常崇拜他,即使不是宁玛派。

看上去废弃的牧民定居工程。作为纳税人,对政府这种花了很多钱,而且不讨好的行为,真不知该说什么。

我们造访了一所学校。学校的校舍受到2011年地震影响成为危房,目前学生在帐篷中上课;新教学楼还在建设中,预计今年可以完成。

这所学校以前就教授藏语,但是其他功课采用汉语为教学语言;几年前改为全部课程使用藏语教学,同时学习汉语。学校制定了一份颇为详细的十年中长期计划,强调要推动民族教育,形成有民族特色的教学模式。





目前在藏区,国家覆盖九年义务教育中学生的所有学费和生活费,包括住宿费和伙食费。

学校的老师告诉我们,现在当地家长的观念有很大改变,认识到小孩受教育的重要性。学校经过多年建设,也赢得了民众的认同,基本上适龄儿童入学率都能达到100%。

我还碰到几位从厦门的大学到这儿来参加暑期支教的学生,由于时间所限,只是寥寥几句。他们是因为有学兄学姐在这支教过,因此就一直延续下来。当地学校对他们非常支持和感谢,因为当地的条件实在比较差。

朋友带我到附近一个著名的温泉,这儿水很清,但是我觉得水不够热,不敢泡澡,只是泡了回儿脚。

路上有遇到一座黑色的佛塔,后来在酒店看到介绍,这是藏区三黑塔之一。我不是佛教徒,也不知道为什么这儿的塔是黑色的。

觉拉乡的这条路一直沿着杂曲

这是中途在一位藏族朋友家茶歇,她给我们准备的风干肉,实在没勇气尝试一下。

 
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Posted by 于 八月 18, 2013 in 行万里路

 

2013·夏·囊谦-德钦之一

2013年夏天,上海大热,幸而到藏区呆了三周。先为一个NGO项目在青海呆了一周,然后在德钦季候鸟呆了两周,最后在广州度周末,回到热都上海。

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看在藏区小图,飞到玉树,然后坐当地小巴去囊谦,在囊谦呆了几天后经类乌齐去昌都,然后乘坐大巴从昌都到云南德钦县,度假结束坐车从德钦到香格里拉,机场离开藏区。全部公路行程正好是国道214从玉树到迪庆段,大约1300公里。

下面是此行的一些图片:

玉树机场

Yushu Airport

玉树重建基本已经结束,90%的人都已经入住,新房里有公共取暖片(是否能够使用还不得知)。但是震前有90平方米以上房子和商业地产的居民对此不满意。90平方米以上的价格大概在2000元/平方米,有些人也被分配了商业地产,具体情况不了解。

结古寺仍然没有修好,规模看起来很大。

震后,当地人在这片山坡上制作了新的十字真言。

这儿的新路牌的汉语名,例如杂曲路,治曲路,都是来自藏语,包括英语路名也是如此:

据我了解,2010年~2011年后,玉树政府加强了藏语教育。在结古镇,之前不教藏语的小学开始教授藏语,授课语言使用汉语;在下面的乡镇,之前学习藏语但使用汉语作为授课语言的学校,现在采用藏语进行教学。但是,玉树是以安多语为主的青海省中唯一康区藏语地区,他们告诉我,课堂上会使用五省区统一教材,但是实际教学中用当地藏语教学。

和中国其他地区一样,现在学生能够升入大学的比率提高了。我听到一些分数很低的也能进入大学,但是工作成为新的问题。在藏区,很多家长觉得最好的工作就是公务员,这一点和内地也差不多;除了公务员之外,次一级的选择是事业单位和国有企业。但是在藏区,私有企业工作机会少,已有的机会太不稳定,很少有毕业生最后进入这些企业。在玉树,我听说特警在大量招人,很多男毕业生都进入了特警队伍。

另外,我看到名不见经传的玉树某寺院的图册。他们寺院有两位活佛逃亡到印度,然后在印度转世。这些转世曾经回国来访问,但是我估计他们恐怕很难获得中国政府的批准。所以看起来,这种情况还挺多的,无怪乎政府会出台活佛转世管理办法。不过这种办法有多有用,大概只有天晓得。

 
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Posted by 于 八月 18, 2013 in 行万里路

 

Good Bad Yushu

I know little of Yushu before the deadly earthquake. All of the sudden, the whole world got to know the name, the place, and the people. During these days after the earthquake, I tirelessly tracked all the info from different source with different opinion and compiled in my blog. In past several years, I traveled extensively in Tibetan area outside TAR, but Yushu is too remote to access until I know there is an airport during the earthquake relief. Yes, I confess I am too spoiled with modern technology and the comfort and speed associated with it. But apparently, this’s what current Yushu is lack most.

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[It was raining when I arrived at Yushu airport]

Prior to my visit, I checked several media reports on current Yushu. In fact upon the first anniversary of the earthquake, several Chinese media covered the situation in Yushu. It is no surprise that state-owned media Xinhua news agency praised everything around reconstruction. But some of more independent Chinese media discovered lots of issues in Yushu. One article from Caixin found the reconstruction is slow, and checked every aspects and conflicts around the reconstruction. Foreign media MSNBC also published a report on Yushu and called it a “giant tent city”. Considered usually aggressive construction speed of China companies and workers, such pace in one year is unimaginable.

A bird-view of the Kyegu Town. Kyegu Monasery is rebuilding far away on the top of the oppositing hill.

[A bird-view of the Kyegu Town. Kyegu Monasery is rebuilding far away on the top of the oppositing hill.]

My observation and talk with locals generally confirmed the slow construction. Current Yushu color is blue of tent. A little correction, while Adrienne Mong of MSNBC said she didn’t say any ongoing constructing in Kyegu town in early June, I saw lots of major sites one months later. The good thing is, currently most building construction sites are schools, hospitals and public facilities like water factory or weather station. So, if you go around the town, the cranes are everywhere. Also the monasteries like Kyegu and Changu are reconstructing. The Kyegu temple construction site is very obvious in downtown due to its birdview position. Part of the Shengli Road is still ongoing, making people life quite inconvenient.

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[Kgygu map]

I can still see some of the buildings surviving from the earthquake. In fact, I was told most of death toll comes from those Tibetans living in clay house. People lived in cement house/building escaped the disaster, mostly official buildings, apartments and newly houses by rich. BTW, locals doesn’t believe the official death number, one estimated as about 15k, more than five times of official numbers.

Slow Reconstructions

After the earthquake, the TAP government decided to sweep all buildings and houses in the downtown area and made a brand new town. However, it is not welcome by all, esp. some of the property owners. One of the major reason of postponed house construction, is the pending negotiations between govt and some property owners(mostly Tibetans). Govt changed the compensation plan and actually committed to allocate the same size of commercial property to the owners but the construction fee need be paid by themselves.

Govt & police are demolishing unimpacted or less-impacted building in the central downtown.  Govt has plan to build a totally new town which generates conflicts w/ local property owners.

[Govt & police are demolishing unimpacted or less-impacted building in the central downtown.  Govt has plan to build a totally new town which generates conflicts w/ local property owners.]

There are different views about the house construction even for Tibetans. One Tibetan told me, most poor herds Tibetan are happy to get 80 m2 house free, who either lived in smaller clay house or rented house from others. They are grateful to the govt. Those who have lots of property are against the original plan. Some are in fact govt officials. In the link of previous post, it states twice to confiscate those houses built in govt, CCP, state-owned lands illegally, which point to those property. However, in the March plan, govt also made compromise, so the whole things can proceed. House construction of town citizens just started. I was told the construction is very quick, only take ten days. So I understand Msnbc reporter saw much less house construction than me. The citizens are informed about the architect plan and they can also monitor the building process.

I was told the agreements between govt and villagers were done. I can see several villages are rebulding like the one in the photoes. The rebuld pace is quite quick. The bulding is contract to big construction companies but Tibetans are also monitoring and helping building their own houses.

[I was told the agreements between govt and villagers were done. I can see several villages are rebulding like the one in the photoes. The rebuld pace is quite quick. The bulding is contract to big construction companies but Tibetans are also monitoring and helping building their own houses.]

The Kgygu town is quite small, however in the reconstruction phase, the area of the town expands dramatically. This is partly due to the fact of reconstruction happens in the same town of people is living; another reason is the influx of workers, mainly Han and Hui, as construction workers and service industry. I can feel the town is very poorly managed now. One example is the taxi. Now the taxi management is non-existed, the price is more than 3x than before. Locals also complain on inflation and govt’s non-action. Contrary to other service sectors, most of taxi drivers are Tibetans, whose cars usually are not managed by the Business Vehicles Bureau, some even don’t have a valid driver license.

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[The square and Gesar statue is almost intact after the earthquake. Tents are built around the square which is the most bustling area of the town.]

Change after earthquake

Yushu is a quite remote place in Qinghai province, it takes about 24 hrs from Xining to Yushu by bus, and also Yushu TAP is a unique Kham area among other Qinghai Amdo areas. Such characteristics made Yushu quite autonomous by local Tibetans and Tibetan officials. As indicated by Robert Barnett, there are flourish local NGOs and people somehow were enjoyed by relatively culture and religious freedom. At the same time, local Tibetans are smart not to challenge the CCP tattoo carefully. For example, Yushu is one of the peaceful Tibetan area in March 2008. However, things are starting to change after the earthquake, w/ more state-level and provincial-level officials are staying Yushu to “help” the reconstruction work. Yushu loses its “remoteness” and the freedom is less than before but in general is still ok. One complain I heard is, local NGOs now are difficult to receive foreign donations while they could easily get them before last year.

Officials are talking to build a model Tibetan area of Yushu. In Chinese official context, and considered the local situation, I think it includes, political correctness, culture and religious freedom, and strong local economy and prosper tourism. However I can’t say how those things mixes harmoniously and how locals feel about. Let us wait and see.

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[Portrait of Dalai Lama in the lobby of my hotel; It is first time I saw Dalai Lam’s portrait is displayed so prominently in China’s Tibetan area. Apparently Yushu enjoys certain level’s religious freedom.]

Han and Tibetan

Another Caixin report described the conflicts in Yushu as mainly between “citizen and officials” instead of “Han Chinese and Tibetan” in other Tibetan area. It is a very sharp description and explains lots of things in Yushu.

Politically speaking, Tibetans lie in higher layer of the city. Officially Yushu TAP has 250K population in which 97% is Tibetans (1999). Therefore, most of the civil servants are Tibetans and in fact they are the people managing the city (also the force fighting against local Tibetan property owners in previous section). They are paid generously and enjoy great power.

Even w/ the earthquake, locals are still trying hard to enjoy themselves w/ the summer tents along the river and setup wind horse flags.

[Even w/ the earthquake, locals are still trying hard to enjoy themselves w/ the summer tents along the river and setup prayer flags.]

With the town expansion after the earthquake, the nearby villages benefit from the reconstruction. All of the tents built on the land of villages are required to pay the commission monthly. Also, reconstruction need some of local resources like sand, stone; most villages own the resource and earn huge money from it. But I heard the revenue is not fairly distributed among Tibetan villagers, usually the village head gets far more than ordinary villagers. It is quite common in mainland China or other developing communities w/o a good check/balance system or even developed societies, people close to capital and power get more for himself firstly.

In the commercialization process, Han Chinese, the outsiders, usually need cooperation from local Tibetan officials. The bribery happens in some cases.

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[Tibetans here are very fond of engraving mantra on stones. Here is the famous Water Mani in scenic spot, Leba Valley. The government is trying hard to advocate tourism industry of Yushu, which including such culture and religious expression. However, how the locals are engaged and benefited in the tourism, how to balance the tourism development and possible environment damage, are topics for officials and people.]

Before the earthquake, there are about 30K migrant workers but now, the number is increased to 170k. However, potentially, the structure above is poised to change. With a plan in mind to develop the economy and expand the town, there is policy to attract capable migrants (mostly Han or Hui) to stay in Yushu after the 3-years reconstruction. People who have stayed in the town for certain years can get government subsidies to own or rent a public house. It is too cold for outsiders to stay in winter but some enjoyed the cool Yushu summer.

Conclusion

There are good and bad in Yushu reconstructions. Due to several reasons, there is not enough coverage of Yushu development. However, in general Yushu is still in good shape. The houses are supposed to finish this year as well as major public facilities, which will give Yushu people a better accommodation this winter.

In one side, it is important for outside to genuinely report and interpret things in Yushu; which of course need government to keep transparency to public.

In another side, Yushu is changing and may lose its remoteness. But it is important to trust and empower the local official team, and the officials interact and work closely with the local people, regardless their ethnic groups. In fact, if Yushu people are fairly treated and happy, they will have no intention to challenge the government at all. Only with happy people, we can build a harmonious society and a model Tibetan area.

Buddha bless Yushu!

Buddha blesses Kyegudo!

[Prayer flags over Kgygu town]

 
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Posted by 于 八月 10, 2011 in 雪狮与龙, 行万里路